The connection between bloodstream lead account and blood pressure levels as well as cardiovascular chance ramifications

Rosenlund Yards, Berglind Letter, Hallqvist J, Bellander T, Bluhm Grams. 2005. Everyday intake away from magnesium and calcium supplements off h2o during the relatives to myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 16(4):570-576.

Rubenowitz Age, Axelsson Grams, Rylander R. 1996. Magnesium in the water and you may passing of acute myocardial infarction. Have always been J Epidemiol 143(5):456-462.

Rubenowitz Age, Axelsson G, Rylander R. 1999. Magnesium and calcium supplements within the water and you can demise regarding intense myocardial infarction in females. Epidemiology 10(1):31-thirty six.

Rubenowitz Age, Molin We, Axelsson G, Rylander R. 2000. Magnesium during the free 100% dating sites water about morbidity and you will death from intense myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 11(4):416-421.

Sauvant MP, Pepin D. 2000. Geographic adaptation of your death of cardiovascular disease and you may liquids for the a good French short urban area (Puy de- Dome). Environ Res 84(3):219-227.

Sinclair Ml, Schlosser O. 2007. Drinking water softening: epidemiological proof into the calcium supplements and you will magnesium in water and you will cardiovascular condition. Water21 – Magazine of one’s Globally Water Relationship Feb:8-19.

Theophanides T, Angiboust JF, Polissiou Yards, Anastassopoulou J, Manfait M. 1990. It is possible to role of liquid build for the physiological magnesium expertise. Magnes Res step 3(1):5-13.

van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, van’t Veer P, Volovics A beneficial, Hermus RJ, Sturmans F. 1990. A massive-size prospective cohort study on dieting and cancer about Netherlands. J Clin Epidemiol 43(3):285-295.

VEWIN (Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven into the Nederland). 1986. Statistiek wateronderzoek 1986 [for the Dutch]. Rijswijk:Vereniging van Exploitanten van Waterbedrijven in Nederland.

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Yang CY, Chang CC, Tsai SS, Chiu HF. 2006. Calcium and you may magnesium from inside the liquid and you can chance of demise from severe myocardial infarction for the Taiwan. Environ Res 101(3):407-411.

Lina J. Leurs, (1) Leo J. Schouten, (1) Margreet Letter. Mons, (2) Roentgen. Alexandra Goldbohm, (3) and you can PietA. van den Brandt (1)

Finding a competent framework to own evaluating exposure-state relationships for the an assembled cohort

(1) Maastricht School, GROW-University having Oncology and Developmental Biology, Agencies out of Epidemiology, Maastricht, the netherlands; (2) KWR, Watercycle Search Institute, Nieuwegein, the netherlands; (3) TNO Lifestyle, Institution out-of Prevention and you can Health, Leiden, holland

Address communication in order to L.J. Leurs, Maastricht University, GROW-College or university having Oncology and you will Developmental Biology, Service out-of Epidemiology, P.O. Package 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, holland. Telephone: 30 0 43 3882392. Fax: 31 0 43 3884128. E-mail:

We are in debt toward participants of this investigation and require to thank brand new Dutch Main Bureau of Genealogy and you may Statistics Netherlands to possess bringing research. I and thank A beneficial. Volovics and you will A beneficial. Kester having statistical recommendations; S. van de Crommert, H. Brants, J. Nelissen, C. de- Zwart, Yards. Moll, W. van Dijk, and you will A. Pisters to have direction; and you can H. van Montfort, T. van Moergasiel, L. van den Bosch, Roentgen. Schmeitz, and J. Berben for programming guidelines.

So it enterprise is actually presented for the Shared Browse System of one’s Dutch liquids people by experts regarding Maastricht School and you can KWR, Watercycle Browse Institute. This research was financed because of the KWR, Watercycle Lookup Institute.

R.A good.G. and you may M.N.M. work for contacting enterprises (TNO Quality of life and you will KWR, respectively); however, none enjoys previously did one earlier look on the most recent procedure revealed in the manuscript. Additionally, exterior report about the proper execution and you can efficiency are used because of the a Scientific Advisory Committee consisting of P. Huntsman (University out of Eastern Anglia), R. Rylander (emeritus teacher), and Meters.We. Sinclair (Liquid Quality Look Australian continent Limited, Monash University).

Most degree you to advertised a keen inverse association between drinking water stiffness and you will IHD or stroke death was ecologic education (Kousa mais aussi al. 2004, 2006, 2008; Maheswaran mais aussi al. 1999; ; Sauvant and you will Pepin 2000). The brand new precision ones form of degree often is asked because of one’s possible ecologic fallacy. A few instance-control and you may cohort degree with little to no if any adjustment to have confounding situations including recommended a potential defensive aftereffect of water firmness, calcium otherwise magnesium levels in h2o, into mortality due to IHD otherwise heart attack (Luoma ainsi que al. 1983; Punsar and you can Karvonen 1979; Rubenowitz et al. 1996, 1999; Yang 1998; Yang mais aussi al. 2006). Likewise, most situation-manage and you can cohort studies that modified for a large number of possible confounders, for example aerobic chance things and you can drinking water qualities, discovered no relationships between drinking water hardness and you can IHD otherwise stroke mortality (Comstock et al. 1980; Morris mais aussi al. 2001; Rosenlund mais aussi al. 2005). New difference is the actual situation-manage studies conducted because of the Rubenowitz et al. (2000) that advertised lower death from serious myocardial infarction ( not with the overall chance) and you may magnesium when you look at the h2o after changing for a general spectrum from possible confounders.

Nutrient consumption try modified to own energy intake by recurring means (Willett and you will Stampfer 1986). The fresh new survey study was key-entered double and you can canned from inside the a standard trend dazzled with respect in order to instance/subcohort standing to minimize observer bias in the coding and you may data interpretation.

The analyzed exposure variables were total tap water hardness, tap water magnesium, and calcium concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we corrected for potential confounding of other known IHD risk factors: age at baseline (years), cigarette smoking (coded as current vs. never/former smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and years of active smoking), hypertension (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), body mass index (BMI) (coded as < 18.5 kg/[m.sup.2], 18.5-25 kg/[m.sup.2], 25-30 kg/[m.sup.2], [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/[m.sup.2]), nonoccupational physical activity (coded in tour categories: very little, average, active, or very active), educational level [coded as primary school, lower vocational, high school (junior and senior), and higher vocational/university], total energy intake (kilocalories per day), alcohol consumption (coded in five categories: 0 g/day, 0.1-5 g/day, 5-15 g/day, 15-30 g/day, 2 30 g/day). energy-adjusted saturated/monounsaturated/ polyunsaturated fat consumption (grams per day), and fruit and vegetable consumption (grams per day). We included additional factors that influence the amount of calcium or magnesium absorption from tap water: use of diuretics (yes/no), multivitamin intake (yes/no), calcium supplement intake (yes/no), energy-adjusted dietary calcium and magnesium consumption (milligrams per clay), and total volume of tap water consumption (milliliters per day) (Elin 1988; Greenland et al. 2003; Hornstra et al. 1998; Wilson 1999). When tap water calcium concentration (milligrams per liter) was analyzed, additional adjustment for tap water magnesium concentration (milligrams per liter) occurred and vice versa.

Gillies Myself, Paulin HV. 1983. Variability from nutrient intakes of drinking water: a potential need into controversy across the relationship out-of liquid top quality so you can cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol a dozen(1):45-fifty.

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