Undesirable browning colour in the frying process is still a matter of concern due to health aspects, especially its carcinogenicity. Indeed, acrylamide, a toxin formed during potato frying process, is https://datingranking.net/android/ known as a potential carcinogen (Friedman, 2003 ) and mutagen (Segerback et al., 1995 ). Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) had classified acrylamide in Class 2A as a probable human carcinogen (IARC, 1994 ). The formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods generally occurs, when heated at high temperatures (over 120°C) under limited humid conditions. It is mainly due to a Maillard reaction which involves reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and an amino acid asparagine (most abundant amino acid in potato). It is important to note that sucrose can be hydrolyzed through acid, enzymatic or thermal treatment acting as a precursor for the formation of reducing sugars (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2009 ; Stadler et al., 2002 ). Reducing sugars are considered to be a limiting factor for acrylamide formation despite the presence of amino acid precursor free asparagine, during the processing of potato products in excess of heat. In order to restrict the formation of acrylamide to low levels, the content of reducing sugars should not exceed 100 mg/100 g FW (Kumar et al.). Moreover, small size tuber (<50-mm size) contains more acrylamide content (322 ppb) because of a high amount of reducing sugar as compared to the large size tubers (>50-mm size) which possess 148 ppb (Po et al., 2018 ).
Though it was low than the maize and you will beans, it brought so much more proteins for each product growing area in comparison with grain
Since the first records from the acrylamide inside dining into the 2002 (Swedish National Restaurants Government, 2002 ), the fresh medical people mobilized and you can come major efforts to reduce it mutagen from the involving the dining business growing mitigation actions. That strategy would be to make and use SNP-situated molecular markers into the selection of potato variety that have lower cutting sugar or sucrose and you can totally free asparagine account with the a massive-level potato reproduction programme (Fischer et al., 2013 ; Li et al., 2013 ; Schreiber et al., 2014 ). Unit markers offer an invaluable chance to speed option for bush breeders to build new potato cultivars with top handling high quality (limited reducing glucose and totally free asparagine, high dead number articles (DMC), highest specific gravity and starch blogs). These faculties is polygenic, thus GWAS predicated on high-thickness genome-large indicators would be effective to possess dissecting such state-of-the-art traits in the potato.
The newest necessary protein stuff away from potato ranged ranging from step 1 and you may dos.95 grams/one hundred g on the new weight base. Additionally, potato proteins is recognized as quality due to brand new presence off methionine, lysine, tryptophan and you will threonine (Lutaladio & Castaldi, 2009 ).
Tuber including adds up steroidal glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and you may ?-solanine with their aglycone derivatives such solasodine and solanidine) which might be essential for bush resistance to pathogens and you may pests but harmful so you’re able to people (Friedman mais aussi al
Potatoes also contain secondary metabolites such as carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins, which are known as dietary antioxidants and may play major roles in preventing human diseases related to ageing, cancer, obesity and heart attack, which benefits health. The carotenoids (varied from yellow to orange colours) and anthocyanins (red and purple colours) are the two most valuable colouring pigments in potato. Carotenoid amounts and types in tubers exhibit a large variation and are positively correlated with tuber peel and the flesh colour (de Haan Et Al., 2009 ; Sulli et al., 2017 ). The carotenoid contents of white flesh potatoes are generally low (<100 ?g/100 g fresh weight), contrasting to higher amounts in the yellow-fleshed varieties (about 560 ?g/100 g FW; Nesterenko & Sink, 2003 ). A diploid germplasm of Solanum showed carotenoid concentrations of more than 2,000 ?g/100 g FW with intense yellow to near orange flesh colour. The primary tuber carotenoids in potato are lutein, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, although some studies (Andre et al., 2007 ; Bonierbale et al., 2009 ) have also reported the presence of beta-carotene (precursor of provitamin A activity). The relative content of ?-carotene in cv. 'Agria' (yellow flesh) represented 2% of total carotenoids (Lachman et al., 2016 ). White, yellow and orange tuber flesh colours are mainly due to the presence of carotenoids (xanthophylls and beta-carotene; Van Eck, 2007 ). Moreover, antioxidant activity and various phenolic contents are also associated with tuber skin and flesh colour. It is a wrong perception that tuber flesh colour is associated with starch content. In fact, the change in flesh colour of tuber depends on the concentration of carotenoids, not on the starch content. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the SNP markers associated with tuber flesh/skin colour, carotenoids and starch for genetic gains in potato keeping in view the consumer preferability (Ah-hen et al., 2012 ). , 2005 ).