Figure 1. Big Canyon National playground preserves a legendary geologic landscaping and tools including 1,840 to 270 million years of age, including diverse paleontological sources;

unconsolidated area deposits; a complex tectonic and erosion records; and Pliocene to Holocene volcanic deposits. The Colorado River demonstrated the course through canyon about six million in years past, and likely developed from pre-existing drainages to the current course. Geologic processes, including erosion of tributaries and slopes, and active tectonics still profile the canyon now. The geologic record in fantastic Canyon is an important scientific chronicle and it is largely in charge of its inspirational landscapes.


Famous for the geologic value, the Grand Canyon the most examined geologic landscapes in the world. It includes an outstanding record of three of the four eras of geological time, a wealthy and varied non-renewable record, a huge variety of geologic attributes and rock type, and numerous caves containing extensive and significant geological, paleontological, archeological and biological means. It’s thought about one of many greatest samples of arid-land erosion in the field. The Canyon, incised from the Colorado lake, was immense, averaging 4,000 base deep for its whole 277 miles. Really 6,000 foot strong at the deepest point and 15 miles at the largest. The picture below series the layers of rock that are uncovered in canyon.

Figure 2. Diagram showing the placement, years and thickness associated with stone products uncovered for the Grand Canyon.

This will be a geologic cross-section (not drawn to measure) that presents the stratigraphy on the fantastic Canyon. Simply put, they signifies precisely what the rock levels would look like should you decide got a knife and sliced lower through the planet at confirmed place, like easy. You are viewing those layers from “side” of easy within picture. Remember that all three kinds of stone (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) can be found inside cross section. Note how the many years from the stone decrease in era from the bottom to reach the top. If this weren’t already designated, do you think you will be able to place the truly amazing Unconformity close to the bottom of the canyon?

How Old will be the Grand Canyon? (recommended)

Pay attention to experts talk about age the fantastic Canyon in addition to controversy throughout the dating. Push the play option from the remaining of web page to concentrate. (Transcripts on the left diet plan and.)

This associated educational document originates from the Grand Canyon instructions paper, published by Grand Canyon state playground.


You’ll end up deciding the family member order for which geological events took place, as revealed inside simple stratigraphic cross section (below). Stratigraphy will be the study from the stone strata, or levels, and is normally put on sedimentary (and often volcanic) rocks.

Figure 3. drawing illustrating cross-cutting relations in geology. These relations can help bring tissues a relative years. Information: A – folded rock strata slice by a push error; B – big intrusion (cutting right through A); C – erosional angular unconformity (cutting off A & B) which stone strata were placed; D – volcanic dyke (cutting right through A, B & C); E – actually young rock strata (overlying C & D); F – typical mistake (cutting through A, B, C & E).

  1. Learning the 3-D cross-section above. The cross-section includes evidence of foldable in level grams (a squeezing associated with stone as a result of compression— we’ll find out more about that in module 11) and faulting among the list of different rock levels.
  2. Just what rock type(s) is represented in all the layers B, grams, D, E (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic)? Explain how you determined this.
  3. What kind of unconformity really does C describe? Mention. (tip: Your choices include disconformity, nonconformity, angular unconformity, or paraconformity.)
  4. That letter(s) or layer(s) of rock do the Principle of Superposition use, and just why? Describe.
  5. Write the order by which each lettered celebration (A-H) occurred in the series, from oldest to youngest. (clue: Remember that the and F is fault traces, D was a dike, and C was an unconformity.)
  6. At just what point in the sequence you think the folding of product G occurred, and just why? Explain.
  7. In 3 – 4 phrases, explain the way the legislation of Cross lowering Relations relates to the cross-section therefore the series in which you bought the happenings.
  8. Do some researching on the net (or elsewhere) to get another simple geologic cross-section of your choice.
    • Put an image of this cross-section within posting, and explain your order where happenings took place the point.
    • Be sure dating an asexual to place brands in your cross section whether or not it does not curently have all of them, which makes it obvious which happenings you’re talking about.
    • Cite your own origin for the cross section, please!

Grading Rubric

10 details: All concerns are responded thoroughly and accurately. Total phrases were utilized to resolve the test concerns.

8 details: All inquiries had been replied and had been generally precise. Only 2 or three small errors.

5 points: Answers were too brief and 1 – 2 concerns comprise unanswered.

2 details: just most limited ideas given.

0 details: couldn’t completed the task.

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